Insulin secretion in normal B-cells is pulsatile, a consequence of oscillations in the cell membrane potential (MP) and cytosolic calcium activity ([Ca(2+)](c)). We simultaneously monitored glucose-induced changes in [Ca(2+)](c) and in the mitochondrial membrane potential DeltaPsi, as a measure for ATP generation. Increasing the glucose concentration from 0.5 to 15 mM led to the well-known hyperpolarization of DeltaPsi and ATP-dependent lowering of [Ca(2+)](c). However, as soon as [Ca(2+)](c) rose due to the opening of voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels, DeltaPsi depolarized and thereafter oscillations in [Ca(2+)](c) were parallel to oscillations in DeltaPsi. A depolarization or oscillations of DeltaPsi cannot be evoked by a substimulatory glucose concentration, but Ca(2+) influx provoked by 30 mM KCl was followed by a depolarization of DeltaPsi. The following feedback loop is suggested: Glucose metabolism via mitochondrial ATP production and closure of K(+)(ATP) channels induces an increase in [Ca(2+)](c). The rise in [Ca(2+)](c) in turn decreases ATP synthesis by depolarizing DeltaPsi, thus transiently terminating Ca(2+) influx.
Copyright 2000 Academic Press.