Peutz-Jegher's syndrome (PJS) is a rare autosomal dominant disorder characterized by mucocutaneous pigmentation, hamartomatous polyposis, and predisposition to benign and malignant tumors of the gastrointestinal tract, breast, ovary, uterine cervix, and testis. Germline-inactivating mutations in one allele of the STK11/LKB1 gene at chromosome 19p13.3 have been found in most PJS patients. Although ovarian sex cord tumors with annular tubules (SCTATs) and minimal deviation adenocarcinomas (MDAs) of the uterine cervix are very rare in the general population, both tumor types occur with increased frequency in women with PJS. An earlier report indicated that the 19p13.3 region containing the STK11 gene was affected by loss of heterozygosity (LOH) in nearly 50% of MDAs of the uterine cervix. We investigated the role of STK11 mutations and LOH of the 19p13.3 region in two PJS-associated SCTATs and in five SCTATs and eight MDAs of the uterine cervix, which occurred in patients lacking features of PJS (referred to here as "sporadic" cases). Germline mutations in the STK11 gene, accompanied by LOH of markers near the wild-type STK11 allele, were found in the two PJS-associated SCTATs. Somatic mutations in the coding region of STK11 were not found in any of the sporadic SCTATs or MDAs studied, although LOH of the 19p13.3 region was seen in three of eight MDAs. Our findings indicate that STK11, like other tumor suppressor genes, is affected by biallelic inactivation in gynecological tumors of PJS patients. In addition, although LOH of the 19p13.3 region was seen in sporadic MDAs, somatic STK11 mutations are rare. A yet-to-be-defined tumor suppressor gene in the 19p13.3 region may be the specific target of inactivation in these tumors.