Background: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents is characterized by excessive restlessness and an extremely poor concentration span, resulting in impulsive and disruptive behavior. Clinical observation of ADHD in adults suggests that the hyperactivity component is diminished although the impulsive type behaviors remain apparent. EEG studies of children and adolescents with ADHD have reported significantly higher levels of low frequency activity (predominantly theta) and lower levels of beta activity than normal controls.
Methods: We examined the relationship between the age-related changes reported in clinical observation and changes in EEG activity occurring in a group of ADHD patients ranging in age from 6 to 42 years. Quantitative EEGs were obtained from the midline sites of 25 children, 25 adolescents and 25 adults diagnosed with ADHD, and compared with those of age matched normal controls.
Results: Theta activity was elevated in the ADHD groups across all age groups compared with the normal controls. The extent of the reduction in relative beta activity in the ADHD groups compared to normal controls decreased with increasing age.
Conclusions: Given that the hyperactivity component in ADHD reduces with age while the impulsivity component remains, these data, in ADHD, suggest that decreased beta activity may be linked to hyperactivity and increased theta activity to impulsivity.