There has been limited epidemiological research about nocturnal enuresis in Turkey. The objectives of this study were to ascertain the prevalence of nocturnal enuresis and the epidemiological factors associated with this in Turkish children aged 7-11 y, living in Manisa. Included in the study were 2000 children from various primary schools in Manisa. Parents were asked to fill out our specially designed questionnaire. In all, questionnaires for 1703 children were completed and returned to the department (871F, 51.1%; 832M, 48.9%). The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis for females was 10.6%, for males it was 16.9% and the overall prevalence was 13.7%. The prevalence of nocturnal enuresis decreased with age. Enuresis nocturna was found to be more common in children with a family history of bedwetting (76.5%). Deep sleeping, poor toilet habits and low educational level of the family were associated with enuresis. Consanguineous marriage did not influence the incidence of enuresis nocturna. There was no difference between enuretics and nonenuretics with reference to breastfeeding, being firstborn or being right- or left-handed. In our opinion, enuresis is an important problem for both families and children in Turkey for which specific guidelines should be developed. Various methods have been tried in the treatment of enuresis because of its multi-factorial aetiology. Child, family and physician co-operating together achieve the best help to both child and family.