CYP2D6 inhibition by fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine in a crossover study: intraindividual variability and plasma concentration correlations

J Clin Pharmacol. 2000 Jan;40(1):58-66. doi: 10.1177/00912700022008702.

Abstract

The authors report the CYP2D6 inhibitory effects of fluoxetine, paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine in an open-label, multiple-dose, crossover design. Twelve CYP2D6 extensive metabolizers were phenotyped, using the dextromethorphan/dextrorphan (DM/DX) urinary ratio, before and after administration of fluoxetine 60 mg (loading dose strategy), paroxetine 20 mg, sertraline 100 mg, and venlafaxine 150 mg. Paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine sequences were randomized with 2-week washouts between treatments; fluoxetine was the last antidepressant (AD) administered. Comparing within groups, baseline DM/DX ratios (0.017) were significantly lower than DM/DX ratios after treatment (DM/DXAD) with fluoxetine (0.313, p < 0.0001) and paroxetine (0.601, p < 0.0001) but not for sertraline (0.026, p = 0.066) or venlafaxine (0.023, p = 0.485). Between groups, DM/DXAD ratios were significantly higher for fluoxetine and paroxetine compared to sertraline and venlafaxine. No differences between DM/DXAD ratios were found for fluoxetine and paroxetine although more subjects phenocopied to PM status after receiving the latter (42% vs. 83%; chi 2 = 4.44, p = 0.049, df = 1). Similarly, no differences between DM/DXAD ratios were found for sertraline and venlafaxine. Of note, the DM/DXAD for 1 subject was much lower after treatment with paroxetine (0.058) compared to fluoxetine (0.490), while another subject exhibited a much lower ratio after treatment with fluoxetine (0.095) compared to paroxetine (0.397). Significant correlations between AD plasma concentration and DM/DXAD were found for paroxetine (r2 = 0.404, p = 0.026) and sertraline (r2 = 0.64, p = 0.002) but not fluoxetine or venlafaxine. In addition, DM/DXAD correlated with baseline isoenzyme activity for paroxetine, sertraline, and venlafaxine groups. These results demonstrate the potent, but variable, CYP2D6 inhibition of fluoxetine and paroxetine compared to sertraline and venlafaxine. CYP2D6 inhibition may be related, in part, to dose, plasma concentration, and baseline isoenzyme activity, and these correlations merit further investigation.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cross-Over Studies
  • Cyclohexanols / adverse effects
  • Cyclohexanols / blood
  • Cyclohexanols / pharmacology
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 / genetics*
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors*
  • Dextromethorphan / urine
  • Dextrorphan / urine
  • Fluoxetine / adverse effects
  • Fluoxetine / blood
  • Fluoxetine / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Isoenzymes / metabolism
  • Paroxetine / adverse effects
  • Paroxetine / blood
  • Paroxetine / pharmacology
  • Phenotype
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / adverse effects
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / blood
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors / pharmacology*
  • Sertraline / adverse effects
  • Sertraline / blood
  • Sertraline / pharmacology
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride

Substances

  • Cyclohexanols
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6 Inhibitors
  • Isoenzymes
  • Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors
  • Fluoxetine
  • Dextrorphan
  • Paroxetine
  • Dextromethorphan
  • Venlafaxine Hydrochloride
  • Cytochrome P-450 CYP2D6
  • Sertraline