Hypertrophic olivary degeneration (HOD) is a rare type of neuronal degeneration involving the dento-rubo-olivary pathway. It is distinguished from other types of neuronal degeneration in that hypertrophy, rather than atrophy, takes place in the neurons in the inferior olivary nucleus. Prior to the invention of Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), HOD was difficult to be detected, and a firm diagnosis could only be made at autopsy. We present a case of bilateral HOD following surgical excision of a cavernous hemangioma in the brainstem. The literature and imaging findings of this uncommon condition are reviewed.