Antigen presentation by parenchymal cells: a route to peripheral tolerance?

Immunol Rev. 1999 Dec;172:297-314. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-065x.1999.tb01374.x.


T-cell activation and the development of efficient immune responses requires the delivery, by the antigen-presenting cell, of two distinct signals. The first results from the engagement of the TCR:CD3:CD4 complex, and the second from the interaction of CD28 with the B7 family of co-stimulatory molecules. In this context, the physiological significance and the functional consequences of antigen presentation by B7-deficient parenchymal cells, which express MHC class II molecules as a result of inflammation, remains a matter of debate. In this paper we have attempted to critically review the often conflicting reports on the functional effects of antigen presentation by epithelial and endothelial cells to T cells, both in vitro and in vivo. Our own findings are summarised in a model which is consistent with the suggestion of an important role for antigen presentation by parenchymal cells in the induction and the maintenance of peripheral tolerance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Abatacept
  • Animals
  • Antigen Presentation*
  • Antigen-Presenting Cells / immunology
  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation / metabolism
  • CD28 Antigens / metabolism
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • Endothelium / immunology
  • Epithelial Cells / immunology
  • Humans
  • Immune Tolerance*
  • Immunoconjugates*
  • Lymphocyte Activation
  • Models, Biological
  • Signal Transduction
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Transplantation Immunology


  • Antigens, CD
  • Antigens, Differentiation
  • CD28 Antigens
  • CTLA-4 Antigen
  • CTLA4 protein, human
  • Immunoconjugates
  • Abatacept