Rats were trained to lever press according to variable interval 10 s schedules during daily experimental sessions composed of six 3 min food reinforcement periods and were treated twice daily for 6 days with either vehicle or escalating regimens of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. On days 7 and 8, the rats were challenged with vehicle and cumulative doses of SR141716A (N-(piperidin-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4, -dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-1H-pyrazole-3-carboxyamide hydrochloride), a cannabinoid CB(1) receptor antagonist, up to 3 and 9 mg/kg, respectively. Response rates increased during Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol withdrawal and towards those of the vehicle treatment group suggesting a waning of the direct effects of Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. SR141716A reduced response rates but only in rats pre-treated with Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol. These data suggest that dependence upon Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol was induced and SR141716A precipitated withdrawal.