Is glutamine a 'conditionally essential' amino acid in Duchenne muscular dystrophy?

Clin Nutr. 1999 Dec;18(6):365-9. doi: 10.1016/s0261-5614(99)80017-x.


To determine whether whole body protein kinetics are altered in Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), six 9 +/- 1-year-old children with DMD and five weight and height matched controls, received intravenous infusion of L-[1-(13)C]leucine and L-[2-(15)N]glutamine in the post-absorptive state. Glutamine rate of appearance was approximatly 24% lower in DMD boys than in controls (321 +/- 22 vs 425 +/- 37 micromol kg(-1)h(-1), P< 0.05) resulting from a 32% decrease in glutamine de novo synthesis (230 +/- 21 vs 340 +/- 34 micromol kg(-1)h(-1), P< 0.05). Whereas there was no difference between groups in estimates of protein degradation and synthesis, leucine oxidation rate was 44% higher in DMD boys than in controls (23 +/- 2 vs 16 +/- 2 micromol kg(-1)h(-1), P< 0.05). The data suggest that the dramatic mucle mass loss observed in DMD boys is associated with a) significant protein wasting, since increased leucine oxidation reflects a more negative whole body leucine balance, and b) a significant decrease in glutamine availability in the postabsorptive state. Glutamine might therefore be a 'conditionally essential' amino-acid in DMD.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Child
  • Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry
  • Glutamine / administration & dosage
  • Glutamine / metabolism*
  • Humans
  • Infusions, Intravenous
  • Kinetics
  • Leucine / administration & dosage
  • Leucine / metabolism*
  • Male
  • Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne / metabolism*
  • Protein Biosynthesis


  • Glutamine
  • Leucine