Introduction: Polyarteritis nodosa is a disease process with a wide clinical spectrum, ranging from a severe generalized multisystem disorder to a more benign condition which may remain limited to the skin, muscles and peripheral nerves, and is termed cutaneous polyarteritis nodosa. Periosteal bone formation is uncommon in this condition.
Exegesis: We report two cases (two female patients of 80 and 55 years of age, respectively) who complained of red, tender nodules of legs and bone pain. Histological changes were those of necrotizing arteritis of the small and medium arteries in the panniculus and dermis. Bone X-ray showed periosteal bone formation.
Conclusion: In patients with pain, skin changes and swelling of the lower limbs, the diagnosis of periarteritis nodosa with periostitis has to be considered.