EEG operant conditioning (biofeedback) and traumatic brain injury

Clin Electroencephalogr. 2000 Jan;31(1):38-44. doi: 10.1177/155005940003100110.


A review is presented of the currently sparse literature about EEG operant conditioning or biofeedback as a treatment to reduce symptomology and patient complaints following a traumatic brain injury. The paper also evaluates the general use of quantitative EEG (QEEG) to assess traumatic brain injury and to facilitate EEG biofeedback treatment. The use of an age matched reference normative QEEG database and QEEG discriminant function are presented as a method to evaluate the nature or neurological basis of a patient's complaints as well as to individualize an efficient and optimal feedback protocol and to help evaluate the efficacy of the biofeedback therapy. Univariate and multivariate statistical issues are discussed, different classes of experimental designs are described and then a "double blind" research study is proposed in an effort to encourage future research in the area of EEG biofeedback for the treatment and rehabilitation of traumatic brain injury.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Analysis of Variance
  • Biofeedback, Psychology / methods*
  • Brain Injuries / physiopathology
  • Brain Injuries / psychology
  • Brain Injuries / therapy*
  • Case-Control Studies
  • Clinical Protocols
  • Conditioning, Operant*
  • Databases as Topic
  • Double-Blind Method
  • Electroencephalography*
  • Evaluation Studies as Topic
  • Humans
  • Multivariate Analysis
  • Research Design