Epidemiological studies indicate that low serum total cholesterol level may increase the risk of death due to cancer, mainly lung cancer. The aim of our study was to evaluate serum levels of total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) in patients with squamous cell and small cell lung cancer and their dependence on the histological type and the clinical stage of the neoplasm. Lung cancer patients (n=135) and healthy controls (n=39) entered the study. All lung cancer patients had higher rate of hypocholesterolemia and lower TC and TG levels than the control group. TC concentration was lower in lung cancer patients and in both histological types in comparison with the control group, TG level was lower only in patients with squamous cell lung cancer. There were no statistically significant differences of TC and TG levels between the histological types, or between the clinical stages of each histological type.