Radiated noise characteristics of a modern cargo ship

J Acoust Soc Am. 2000 Jan;107(1):118-29. doi: 10.1121/1.428344.


Extensive measurements were made of the radiated noise of M/V OVERSEAS HARRIETTE, a bulk cargo ship (length 173 m, displacement 25 515 tons) powered by a direct-drive low-speed diesel engine-a design representative of many modern merchant ships. The radiated noise data show high-level tonal frequencies from the ship's service diesel generator, main engine firing rate, and blade rate harmonics due to propeller cavitation. Radiated noise directionality measurements indicate that the radiation is generally dipole in form at lower frequencies, as expected. There are some departures from this pattern that may indicate hull interactions. Blade rate source level (174 dB re 1 microPa/m at 9 Hz, 16 knots) agrees reasonably well with a model of fundamental blade rate radiation previously reported by Gray and Greeley, but agreement for blade rate harmonics is not as good. Noise from merchant ships elevates the natural ambient by 20-30 dB in many areas; the effects of this noise on the biological environment have not been widely investigated.