A 34 year-old man, who was a smoker, was hospitalised because of severe epigastric and right upper quadrant pain. An isolated left branch portal vein thrombosis was diagnosed using ultrasonography and arteriography. Two thrombogenic pathologies were found: i) a latent myeloproliferative syndrome with spontaneous presence of erythroid colony forming unit (CFU-E) in bone marrow culture, normal blood cell count, platelet count and medullogram; ii) a hyperhomocysteinemia associated with low serum folate levels and a methyl tetrahydrofolate reductase mutation. The association of these two factors probably resulted in portal vein thrombosis. This is the first adult case of a portal vein thrombosis associated with hyperhomocysteinemia. Increased homocysteine serum levels could be a previously unrecognized factor for portal vein thrombosis. Homocysteinemia should be systematically investigated in patients with idiopathic portal vein thrombosis since folate supplements could prevent deleterious vascular effects of hyperhomocysteinemia.