Evaluation of pain and stress levels of animals used in experimental research

J Surg Res. 2000 Feb;88(2):114-9. doi: 10.1006/jsre.1999.5789.


This paper represents a contribution to researchers employing "in vivo" models in experimental surgery in order to obtain more reliable results in accordance with current legislation and Russel's "three R" statement: refinement, reduction, and replacement. After general consideration about the definition of pain and stress concerning laboratory animals, the authors suggest making an evaluation of the experimental protocol before approval by the local committee to allow assessment in terms of the costs/benefits of experimental research employing live animals.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Animals, Laboratory / psychology*
  • Pain / etiology
  • Pain / veterinary*
  • Stress, Physiological / etiology
  • Stress, Physiological / veterinary*
  • Surgical Procedures, Operative / psychology*