Accuracy and accommodation capability of a handheld autorefractor

J Cataract Refract Surg. 2000 Jan;26(1):62-70. doi: 10.1016/s0886-3350(99)00325-9.


Purpose: To determine the accuracy of measurement by the Nikon Retinomax handheld autorefractor and its ability to relax accommodation.

Setting: Pediatric Section, Department of Ophthalmology, University of Mainz, Germany.

Methods: To perform a series of comparative measurements, autorefractor readings were obtained on healthy young adults (students) and on children aged 2 to 12 years. The autorefractor readings were compared with subjective refractions of the young adults and with cycloplegic retinoscopy of the children.

Results: In adults, the accuracy of the handheld autorefractor measurements was comparable to that of conventional tabletop autorefractors. In children, the autorefractor measurements performed under cycloplegia were reliable; when cycloplegic agents were not administered, 24% were overcorrected by more than -2.0 diopters.

Conclusion: Cycloplegia is often necessary to obtain accurate autorefractor results.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial

MeSH terms

  • Accommodation, Ocular / physiology*
  • Adult
  • Aging / physiology
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Electronic Data Processing
  • Humans
  • Reference Values
  • Refraction, Ocular*
  • Refractive Errors / diagnosis
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Vision Tests / instrumentation*