Chromosome 7p alterations have been implicated in the development of Wilms' tumour (WT) by previous studies of tumour cytogenetics, and by our analysis of a constitutional translocation (t(1;7)(q42;p15)) in a child with WT and radial aplasia. We therefore used polymorphic microsatellite markers on 7p for a loss of heterozygosity (LOH) study, and found LOH in seven out of 77 informative WTs (9%). The common region of LOH was 7p15-7p22, which contains the region disrupted by the t(1;7) breakpoint. Four WTs with 7p LOH had other genetic changes; a germline WT1 mutation with 11p LOH, LOH at 11p, LOH at 16q, and loss of imprinting of IGF2. Analysis of three tumour-associated lesions from 7p LOH cases revealed a cystic nephroma-like area also having 7p LOH. However, a nephrogenic rest and a contralateral WT from the two other cases showed no 7p LOH. No particular clinical phenotype was associated with the WTs which showed 7p LOH. The frequency and pattern of 7p LOH demonstrated in our studies indicate the presence of a tumour suppressor gene at 7p involved in the development of Wilms' tumour.