A predominant Th1 type of immune response is induced early during acute Helicobacter pylori infection in rhesus macaques

Gastroenterology. 2000 Feb;118(2):307-15. doi: 10.1016/s0016-5085(00)70213-7.


Background & aims: The immune response of gastric T cells during acute Helicobacter pylori infection has not been previously characterized. The aim of this study was to delineate the phenotypic and functional responses of gastric T cells during acute H. pylori infection of rhesus macaques.

Methods: Four monkeys were experimentally infected with H. pylori. Gastric biopsy specimens and peripheral blood samples were obtained 1 and 12 weeks after inoculation. Samples from 3 animals uninfected with H. pylori served as controls. The immunophenotypic changes and functional potential of CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells in gastric mucosa and peripheral blood to produce cytokines (interleukin [IL]-2, IL-4, IL-13, interferon [IFN]-gamma, MIP-1beta, and tumor necrosis factor [TNF]-alpha) were determined at a single cell level using flow cytometry.

Results: An increase in CD4(+) T cells occurred in the gastric mucosa during acute H. pylori infection as early as 1 week after infection. Acute infection was characterized by a predominantly T helper (Th)1 (IL-2 and IFN-gamma) and proinflammatory (TNF-alpha and MIP-1beta) type of cytokine response and the absence of a Th2 type of response.

Conclusions: A predominant Th1 type response was induced early during acute H. pylori infection and may contribute to the development of gastric disease.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Animals
  • Biopsy
  • CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes / immunology
  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Cytokines / biosynthesis*
  • Flow Cytometry
  • Gastric Mucosa / immunology*
  • Gastric Mucosa / pathology
  • Helicobacter Infections / blood
  • Helicobacter Infections / immunology*
  • Helicobacter Infections / pathology
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Immunophenotyping
  • Interferon-gamma / biosynthesis
  • Interleukins / biosynthesis
  • Macaca mulatta
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins / biosynthesis
  • T-Lymphocytes / immunology*
  • Th1 Cells / immunology*
  • Th2 Cells / immunology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / biosynthesis


  • Chemokine CCL4
  • Cytokines
  • Interleukins
  • Macrophage Inflammatory Proteins
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Interferon-gamma