Retrieval from long-term memory in patients with brain injuries was investigated with a memory scanning paradigm (Conway & Engle, 1994), that allows dissociation of scanning processes within short-term memory and memory retrieval processes from long-term memory. The study focused on the influence of brain injury on memory retrieval processes that are assumed to be automatic. Thirteen patients with memory impairment and 13 healthy matched control subjects were tested. In general, patients showed increased reaction times, but they showed set size independent retrieval from long-term memory indicating preserved automatic retrieval processes. In a subgroup of patients with more severe memory deficits, however, automatic retrieval processes appeared not to be intact. Learning profiles of the patients were characterized by smaller item chunks, indicating differences in the process of information acquisition.