Vitamin D receptor gene (VDR) polymorphisms have been reported to be related to prostate cancer risk in the USA. We analyzed the distribution of TaqI RFLP and poly(A) of VDR in 100 prostate cancer patients and 202 urological controls. Among the control, 79.2% were homozygous (TT) for the absence of a TaqI RFLP, while 17.8% were heterozygous (Tt) and 3.0% homozygous (tt) for its presence. The distribution was almost the same in the cancer group; 80% were homozygous TT, 18% heterozygous Tt, and 2.0% homozygous tt. Polymorphism of poly(A) sizes was categorized as a long allele (> or = 18 As) and a short allele (< 18 As). The distribution did not vary between the cancer and control groups; 80, 79.2% were LL, 18, 17.8% LS and 2.0, 3.0% SS, respectively. These results showed no significant association of two VDR polymorphisms with prostate cancer risk, however a different distribution of VDR polymorphisms between Japanese and non-Japanese men.