A new species of Cryptosporidium is described from the feces of domestic cattle, Bos taurus. Oocysts are structurally similar to those of Cryptosporidium muris described from mice but are larger than those of Cryptosporidium parvum. Oocysts of the new species are ellipsoidal, lack sporocysts, and measure 7.4 x 5.5 microm (range, 6.0-8.1 by 5.0-6.5 microm). The length to width ratio is 1.35 (range, 1.07-1.50). The colorless oocyst wall is < 1 microm thick, lacks a micropyle, and possesses a longitudinal suture at one pole. A polar granule is absent, whereas an oocyst residuum is present. Oocysts were passed fully sporulated and are not infectious to outbred, inbred immunocompetent or immunodeficient mice, chickens or goats. Recent molecular analyses of the rDNA 18S and ITS1 regions and heat-shock protein 70 (HSP-70) genes demonstrate this species to be distinct from C. muris infecting rodents. Based on transmission studies and molecular data, we consider the large form of Cryptosporidium infecting the abomasum of cattle to be a new species and have proposed the name Cryptosporidium andersoni n. sp. for this parasite.