Dosage compensation: making 1X equal 2X

Trends Cell Biol. 2000 Feb;10(2):54-9. doi: 10.1016/s0962-8924(99)01693-1.


Animals that have XX females and XY or XO males have differing doses of X-linked genes in each sex. Overcoming this is the most immediate and vital aspect of sexual differentiation. A number of systems that accurately compensate for sex-chromosome dosage have evolved independently: silencing a single X chromosome in female mammals, downregulating both X chromosomes in hermaphrodite Caenorhabditis elegans and upregulating the X chromosome in male Drosophila all equalize X-linked gene expression. Each organism uses a largely non-overlapping set of molecules to achieve the same outcome: 1X = 2X.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Dosage Compensation, Genetic*
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage / genetics
  • Humans
  • Male
  • X Chromosome / genetics