The chemopreventive effects of Ibuprofen on the development and growth of 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA) induced rat mammary tumors were examined. A well known breast cancer chemopreventive retinoid, N-(4-hydroxyphenyl) retinamide (4-HPR) was also included in this study for comparison. At 7 days prior to receiving a single intragastric dose of 15 mg DMBA, rats were fed a control chow diet, as well as diets containing either 1000 mg/kg diet of Ibuprofen or 1.5 mmol/kg diet of 4-HPR. Ibuprofen and 4-HPR markedly increased tumor latency. At 112 days post DMBA intubation, tumor incidence was 86% in control rats as compared to 74% and 62% in rats receiving Ibuprofen, and 4-HPR diets respectively (p < 0.05). Ibuprofen and 4-HPR reduced tumor burden and tumor volume almost to the same extent. The control rats had an average of 2.26 tumors/rat compared to 1.42 and 1.46 tumors/rat in the Ibuprofen or 4-HPR groups respectively (p < 0.05). Similarly, average tumor volume was 3.25 cm3 in the control rats compared to 0.86 cm3 and 0.83 cm3 in rats receiving Ibuprofen and 4-HPR diets respectively (p < 0.05). These results suggest that Ibuprofen may have potential in the chemoprevention and treatment of breast cancer.