The pharmacokinetic interaction between nefazodone and carbamazepine was investigated in 12 healthy male volunteers. Subjects received nefazodone 200 mg twice daily for 5 days, and blood sample collection was performed on day 5 for 0- to 48-hour pharmacokinetic analysis. A 4-day wash-out phase then followed from days 6 to 9. Carbamazepine 200 mg was administered once daily from days 10 to 12, and then 200 mg was given twice daily from days 13 to 44. A 0- to 48-hour pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on day 38. Nefazodone 200 mg twice daily was added to the dosing regimen from days 40 to 44, and a subsequent 0- to 48-hour pharmacokinetic analysis was performed on day 44. Coadministration of nefazodone increased steady-state plasma area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of carbamazepine from 60.77 (+/-8.44) to 74.98 (+/-12.88) microg x hr/mL (p < 0.001) and decreased the active carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide metabolite AUC concentration from 7.10 (+/-1.16) to 5.71 (+/-0.52) microg x hr/mL (p < 0.005). During the combination, the steady-state AUC of nefazodone decreased from 7,326 (+/-3,768) to 542 (+/-191) ng x hr/mL, and the AUCs of its metabolites (hydroxynefazodone, meta-chlorophenylpiperazine, and triazoledione) decreased significantly as well (p < 0.001). Coadministration of nefazodone 200 mg twice daily and carbamazepine 200 mg twice daily was found to be safe and well tolerated; however, the increased plasma exposure to carbamazepine may warrant monitoring of plasma carbamazepine concentrations with the combination. However, higher doses (>400 mg/day) of carbamazepine could yield more extensive induction, affecting tolerability of the combination. No change in the initial nefazodone dose is necessary, and subsequent dose adjustments should be made on the basis of clinical effects; however, the repercussion of carbamazepine induction of nefazodone metabolism on the antidepressant efficacy has yet to be studied.