Deadly weapon-related open-globe injuries: outcome assessment by the ocular trauma classification system

Am J Ophthalmol. 2000 Jan;129(1):47-53. doi: 10.1016/s0002-9394(99)00254-8.


Purpose: To describe mechanisms and injury characteristics influencing visual outcomes in eyes with open-globe injuries caused by deadly weapons and to apply the classification system introduced by the Ocular Trauma Classification Group.

Methods: Two-hundred-twenty-eight eyes of 212 consecutive patients, who were mostly injured in military confrontation, were analyzed. Mechanism and injury characteristics were evaluated for predicting visual outcome according to the recently studied classification system as well as other variables pertinent to this specific clinical setting of severe eye trauma. Final visual acuities were defined as favorable (5/200 or better) or unfavorable (less than 5/200, including enucleation).

Results: The mean age of patients was 23 years, and the mean follow-up was 5.7 months. The predictors for favorable visual outcome were type B, grade 1, zone I, and relative afferent pupillary defect-negative injuries. The predictors for unfavorable outcome were type A, grade 5, zone III, and relative afferent pupillary defect-positive injuries. Land mine and hand grenade injuries had the worst outcome among causative agents. Proliferative vitreoretinopathy, comprising 30.4% of postoperative failures, was the most common complication.

Conclusion: Deadly weapon-related open-globe injuries, especially those associated with land mines and hand grenades, have devastating visual results. Evaluation of trauma mechanism and injury characteristics according to the Ocular Trauma Classification System seems to predict visual outcomes in this series of severe open-globe injuries.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Eye Injuries, Penetrating / classification*
  • Eye Injuries, Penetrating / physiopathology
  • Eye Injuries, Penetrating / therapy
  • Hospitals, Military
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Military Medicine*
  • Outcome Assessment, Health Care*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Visual Acuity*
  • Warfare*