Background: The purpose of this retrospective clinical study was to demonstrate vascularization of peripheral hyperplastic chorioretinal scars in presumed congenital toxoplasmosis by choroidal vessels and secondly to report vasoproliferative tumors of the sensory retina seen in association with such lesions.
Methods: Retrospective study of a cohort of 13 patients with peripheral hypertrophic chorioretinal scars, including fluorescein angiography (eight eyes) and indocyanine green angiography (seven eyes). Congenital toxoplasmosis was serologically confirmed in seven cases and suspected on clinical grounds in six cases.
Results: Sixteen eyes exhibited a peripheral complex scar with a posterior atrophic and an anterior hypertrophic part. These scars were vascularized from the choroid. In eight of these eyes an additional vasoproliferative tumor was seen within or adjacent to the scar and in one fellow eye a vasoproliferative retinal tumor was found as well. These eyes experience visual loss, resulting from vitritis and exudative/traction retinal detachment. Regression of exudation was seen in five of seven cryocoagulated or endophotocoagulated tumors.
Conclusion: Peripheral hypertrophic scars in presumed congenital toxoplasmosis can be vascularized from the choroid. A vasoproliferative tumor of the sensory retina, secondary to presumed congenital toxoplasmosis scars, can cause vitritis and exudative/traction retinal detachment. Early coagulation of this lesion may prevent a poor outcome.