A set of seven Y-chromosomal STR loci (DYS19, DYS389-I, DYS389-II, DYS390, DYS391, DYS392, DYS393) with the addition of the bilocal marker DYS385 was used to generate male-specific haplotype databases for two Hungarian population samples, Caucasians from the Budapest area and Romanies from Baranya county. At the locus DYS385 three types of intermediate sized alleles were detected in six males. The presence of a (GA) dinucleotide, probably due to an (AA) deletion in the second (GAAA) repeat of the polymorphic repeat region leads to an intermediate allelle 17.2. The intermediate alleles 17.-1 and 18.-1 with the consensus repeat structure of (GAAA)17 and (GAAA)18, respectively, were found to lack a T in the same (T)7 stretch located within the 3' flanking region of each allele. The forensic efficiency values for the Romany population were significantly lower than those found in the Central Hungarian and other non-isolated Causasian populations, which may imply a possible common paternal ancestry of some haplotypes in the Romany sample. With pairwise comparisons of inter-population molecular variance, the two populations analyzed here and an Italian population sample, could be clearly distinguished using the seven monoclonal Y-STRs. A sizing precision of < or = 0.14 nucleotide standard deviation was obtained with capillary electrophoresis carried out on an ABI Prism 310 Genetic Analyzer. Objective and accurate genotyping is thus possible using an internal size standard with a high density of fragments.