The eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4G (eIF4G) proteins play a critical role in the recruitment of the translational machinery to mRNA. The eIF4Gs are phosphoproteins. However, the location of the phosphorylation sites, how phosphorylation of these proteins is modulated and the identity of the intracellular signaling pathways regulating eIF4G phosphorylation have not been established. In this report, two-dimensional phosphopeptide mapping demonstrates that the phosphorylation state of specific eIF4GI residues is altered by serum and mitogens. Phosphopeptides resolved by this method were mapped to the C-terminal one-third of the protein. Mass spectrometry and mutational analyses identified the serum-stimulated phosphorylation sites in this region as serines 1108, 1148 and 1192. Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitors and rapamycin, an inhibitor of the kinase FRAP/mTOR (FKBP12-rapamycin-associated protein/mammalian target of rapamycin), prevent the serum-induced phosphorylation of these residues. Finally, the phosphorylation state of N-terminally truncated eIF4GI proteins acquires resistance to kinase inhibitor treatment. These data suggest that the kinases phosphorylating serines 1108, 1148 and 1192 are not directly downstream of PI3K and FRAP/mTOR, but that the accessibility of the C-terminus to kinases is modulated by this pathway(s).