This statement is intended for health care professionals caring for neonates (preterm to 1 month of age). The objectives of this statement are to: 1. Increase awareness that neonates experience pain; 2. Provide a physiological basis for neonatal pain and stress assessment and management by health care professionals; 3. Make recommendations for reduced exposure of the neonate to noxious stimuli and to minimize associated adverse outcomes; and 4. Recommend effective and safe interventions that relieve pain and stress.