Stresgenin B was isolated as an inhibitor of heat-induced heat shock protein (HSP) gene expression from a culture broth of Streptomyces sp. AS-9 by silica gel chromatography and HPLC. The molecular formula of the novel compound was determined as C11H13NO5 by high resolution FAB-MS analysis, and the structure was determined by UV, 1H NMR, 13C NMR, HMQC, HMBC, and NOESY spectra. Stresgenin B inhibited heat-induced luciferase reporter-gene expression directed by the human hsp70B promoter in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells at concentrations lower than the concentrations for inhibition of dexamethasone-induced luciferase reporter-gene expression directed by the mouse mammary tumor virus (MMTV)-LTR promoter. The inhibition of heat-induced reporter gene expression was evident even when cells were exposed to stresgenin B only during heat stress treatment. Moreover, the compound inhibited heat-induced syntheses of hsp72/73, hsp90, and hsp110 and thereby suppressed the induction of thermotolerance. Stresgenin B showed moderate cytotoxic activities against several neoplastic cell lines and also showed antibacterial activities against Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus strains.