The stroke prognosis instrument II (SPI-II) : A clinical prediction instrument for patients with transient ischemia and nondisabling ischemic stroke

Stroke. 2000 Feb;31(2):456-62. doi: 10.1161/01.str.31.2.456.


Background and purpose: In 1991 we developed the Stroke Prognosis Instrument (SPI-I) to stratify patients with transient ischemic attack or ischemic stroke by prognosis for stroke or death in 2 years. In this article we validate and improve SPI-I (creating SPI-II).

Methods: To validate SPI-I, we applied it to 4 test cohorts and calculated pooled outcome rates. To create SPI-II, we incorporated new predictive variables identified in 1 of the test cohorts and validated it in the other 3 cohorts.

Results: For SPI-I, pooled rates (all 4 test cohorts) of stroke or death within 2 years in risk groups I, II, and III were 9%, 17%, and 24%, respectively (P<0.01, log-rank test). SPI-II was created by adding congestive heart failure and prior stroke to SPI-I. Each patient's risk group was determined by the total score for 7 factors: congestive heart failure (3 points); diabetes (3 points); prior stroke (3 points); age >70 years (2 points); stroke for the index event (not transient ischemic attack) (2 points); hypertension (1 point); and coronary artery disease (1 point). Risk groups I, II, and III comprised patients with 0 to 3, 4 to 7, and 8 to 15 points, respectively. For SPI-I, pooled rates (3 cohorts excluding the SPI-II development cohort) of stroke or death within 2 years in risk groups I, II, and III were 9%, 17%, and 23%, respectively. For SPI-II, pooled rates were 10%, 19%, and 31%, respectively. In receiver operator characteristic analysis, the area under the curve was 0.59 (95% CI, 0.57 to 0.60) for SPI-I and 0.63 (95% CI, 0.62 to 0.65) for SPI-II, confirming the better performance of the latter.

Conclusions: Compared with SPI-I, SPI-II achieves greater discrimination in outcome rates among risk groups. SPI-II is ready for use in research design and may have a role in patient counseling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Ischemic Attack, Transient / physiopathology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Prognosis*
  • Stroke / physiopathology*