Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide: a central regulator of satiety and interoceptive stress

Neuropeptides. 1999 Oct;33(5):406-14. doi: 10.1054/npep.1999.0053.


Glucagon-like peptide-1 (7-36) amide (GLP-1) is processed from proglucagon in the distal ileum as well as in the CNS. In the periphery, GLP-1 acts as an incretin factor and profoundly inhibits upper gastrointestinal motility ('ileal brake'), the latter presumably involving the CNS. Within the CNS, GLP-1 has a satiating effect, since administration of GLP-1 into the third cerebral ventricle reduces short-term food intake (and meal size), while administration of GLP-1 antagonists have the opposite effect. In addition, activation of GLP-1 receptors in certain brain regions elicits strong taste aversions. Similarities between toxin- and GLP-1-induced neuronal activity in the CNS (brain stem) suggest a role for central GLP-1 receptors in relaying interoceptive stress. Thus, regionally distinct GLP-1 receptor populations in the CNS may be involved in satiety or malaise. It is argued that the satiating and aversive aspects of GLP-1 serve homeostatic and nonhomeostatic functions with respect to maintenance of nutrient balance.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Eating / drug effects
  • Glucagon
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon-Like Peptides
  • Humans
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / metabolism
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / pharmacology
  • Neurotransmitter Agents / physiology*
  • Peptide Fragments / metabolism
  • Peptide Fragments / pharmacology
  • Peptide Fragments / physiology*
  • Satiety Response / drug effects
  • Satiety Response / physiology*
  • Stress, Psychological / physiopathology*


  • Neurotransmitter Agents
  • Peptide Fragments
  • glucagon-like peptide 1 (7-36)amide
  • Glucagon-Like Peptides
  • Glucagon-Like Peptide 1
  • Glucagon