The validity and reliability of the Dutch Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire

J Occup Health Psychol. 2000 Jan;5(1):142-55. doi: 10.1037//1076-8998.5.1.142.


The reliability and validity of the Effort-Reward Imbalance Questionnaire were tested in 775 blue- and white-collar workers in the Netherlands. Cronbach's alpha revealed sufficient internal consistency of all subscales except Need for Control. With exploratory probabilistic scaling (Mokken) analysis, the psychometric qualities of the Need for Control scale were improved. With confirmatory factor analysis, the factorial validity of the Extrinsic Effort and Reward subscales was confirmed. A model with 3 separate dimensions for reward (status control, esteem reward, and monetary gratification) proved adequate, emphasizing the importance of distinguishing subscales. The congruent validity of the subscales and a hypothesized relationship with an external construct, health functioning, were confirmed.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Germany
  • Humans
  • Internal-External Control
  • Job Satisfaction*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Organizational Culture
  • Personality Inventory / statistics & numerical data*
  • Physical Exertion*
  • Psychometrics
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Reward*