A multilevel analysis of the demands--control model: is stress at work determined by factors at the group level or the individual level?

J Occup Health Psychol. 2000 Jan;5(1):182-90. doi: 10.1037//1076-8998.5.1.182.


This study explored the extent to which negative health-related outcomes are associated with differences between work groups and with differences between individuals within work groups using R.A. Karasek's (1979) demands-control model. The sample consisted of 260 employees in 31 working groups of a national bank in the Netherlands. Results suggest that job demands and job control should be conceptualized as having both group- and individual-level foundations. Support for Karasek's demands-control model was found only when these variables were split into the 2 parts, reflecting shared perceptions and employees' subjective assessment, respectively. One of the most appealing practical implications is that absence rates among homogeneous work groups can be reduced by enhancing actual control on the job.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Female
  • Group Processes*
  • Humans
  • Individuality
  • Internal-External Control*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Occupational Diseases / prevention & control
  • Occupational Diseases / psychology
  • Risk Factors
  • Social Environment*
  • Stress, Psychological / complications*
  • Workload / psychology*