Stromal extracellular matrix (ECM) components are thought to play an important role in regulating invasion of human gliomas. Macrophages and microglial cells may heavily influence the integrity of the extracellular compartment of gliomas, and the affected ECM may play a key role in regulating migratory activity of both tumor cells and macrophages/microglia. The aim of this investigation was to study immunohistochemically the expression patterns of four ECM components: fibronectin, laminin, collagen IV, and tenascin (TN) in human gliomas, with special attention to TN. Our main goal was to study the possible correlation between TN expression and macrophagic/microglial infiltration in gliomas. Altogether, 90 gliomas were studied. Tumors included 46 glioblastomas, 19 anaplastic gliomas, 22 low grade gliomas, and 3 pilocytic astrocytomas. Vascular TN prevailed in perinecrotic areas of glioblastomas, whereas interstitial TN was more often expressed distant from necrosis and in the ECM of anaplastic and low grade gliomas. Double staining with CD68 and anti-TN antibodies showed that macrophagic/microglial density was significantly higher in TN-positive areas of most of the glioblastomas and anaplastic gliomas, whereas microglial percentage from total number of CD68-positive cells was in most of the cases significantly higher in TN-negative areas. In addition, we saw a morphologically spatial correlation between higher densities of macrophagic/microglial infiltration and TN expression in perinecrotic areas in glioblastomas. Attachment of macrophages to TN-positive basement membrane zones of newly formed stromal blood vessels was evident. On the basis of our results, we conclude that TN may play a crucial role in regulating trafficking of cells of monocyte lineage in human gliomas.