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Review
, 61 (1), 1-6

The Human Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCR) That Induce HLA Class I-independent NK Cell Triggering

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Review

The Human Natural Cytotoxicity Receptors (NCR) That Induce HLA Class I-independent NK Cell Triggering

C Bottino et al. Hum Immunol.

Abstract

The cytolytic activity mediated by human natural killer (NK) cells is the result of a balance between signals delivered by inhibitory and activating receptors. The inhibitory receptors are represented by different families of HLA-specific receptors characterized by immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibiting motif(ITIM) sequences in their cytoplasmic portion. The function and the specificity of the inhibitory receptors imply the existence of triggering receptors specific for non-HLA ligands that are responsible for the induction of the cytolytic activity against HLA class I-deficient target cells. These receptors have remained elusive until recently when three distinct NK-specific molecules, termed natural cytotoxicity receptors (NCR), were identified and cloned. The different members of this novel family of receptors play a complementary role in the recognition and lysis of target cells. The NCR family is composed by a heterogeneous group of molecules belonging to the Ig superfamily that associate to different immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activating motif (ITAM)-containing signal transducing polypeptides.

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