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, 473, 275-80

Sips, Sops, and SPIs but Not Stn Influence Salmonella Enteropathogenesis

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Sips, Sops, and SPIs but Not Stn Influence Salmonella Enteropathogenesis

T S Wallis et al. Adv Exp Med Biol.

Abstract

The virulence factors influencing Salmonella-induced enteropathogenesis remain poorly characterised. The interactions of different serotypes of Salmonella with bovine ileal mucosa have been characterised in the ligated ileal loop model. In a quantitative intestinal invasion assay Salmonella dublin, S. choleraesuis, S. gallinarum, and S. abortusovis strains were all recovered from ileal mucosa, either with or without Peyer's patches in similar numbers. This observation suggests that the magnitude and route of intestinal invasion does not mediate Salmonella serotype host specificity. Despite being equally invasive there was a clear hierarchy in the enteropathogenicity of these serotypes. The magnitude of the enteropathogenic responses did not correlate to serotype host specificity. These observations implicate undefined serotype specific factors in influencing enteropathogenicity independently of intestinal invasion. Disruption of genes in Salmonella Pathogenicity Island (SPI) 1 of S. typhimurium and S. dublin blocked the secretion of Salmonella Invasion Proteins (Sips) and Salmonella Outer Proteins (Sops). These mutants were significantly less invasive and enteropathogenic then the wild type strain in ligated ileal loops. Disruption of sopB and sopD significantly reduced enteropathogenesis, but without influencing intestinal invasion. These two genes appear to act in concert. Surprisingly, disruption of stn, the Salmonella enterotoxin gene cloned on the basis of its homology to cholera toxin, did not influence enteropathogenesis. SopB was mapped to the 20 centisome of S. typhimurium and is flanked by 5 genes that are organised in a manner typical of a pathogenicity island, which we have termed SPI-5. Mutation of the other genes in SPI-5 also attenuated enteropathogenesis but not virulence for mice, suggesting SPI-5 is a key locus specifically influencing Salmonella enteropathogenesis.

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