The purpose of this study was to investigate the immunohistochemical expression of androgen receptors (AR) in human vastus lateralis and trapezius muscles and to determine whether long-term strength training and self-administration of androgenic-anabolic steroids are accompanied by changes in AR content. Biopsy samples were taken from eight high-level power-lifters (P), nine high-level power-lifters who used anabolic steroids (PAS) and six untrained subjects (U). Myonuclei and AR were visualised in cross-sections stained with the monoclonal antibody against AR and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole. The proportion of AR-containing myonuclei per fibre cross-section was higher in the trapezius than in the vastus lateralis (P<0.05). In the trapezius, the proportion of AR-containing myonuclei was higher in P compared to U and in PAS compared to both P and U (P<0. 05). On the contrary, in the vastus lateralis, there were no differences in AR content between the three groups. Myonuclear number in both muscles was higher in P compared to U and in PAS compared to both P and U (P<0.05). In conclusion, AR content differs greatly between human neck and limb muscles. Moreover, the regulation of AR-containing myonuclei following training and self-administration of androgenic-anabolic steroids is muscle dependent.