Molecular genetics of Turner syndrome: correlation with clinical phenotype and response to growth hormone therapy

Clin Genet. 1999 Dec;56(6):441-6. doi: 10.1034/j.1399-0004.1999.560606.x.


To correlate the origin of the retained X in Turner syndrome with phenotype, pre-treatment height and response to recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) therapy, systematic clinical assessment and molecular studies were carried out in 33 Greek children with Turner syndrome and their parents including 18 children with 45,X and 15 with X-mosaicism. Microsatellite markers on X chromosomes (DXS101 and DXS337) revealed that the intact X was paternal (Xp) in 15/30 and maternal (Xm) in 15/30 children, while 3/33 families were non-informative. No significant relationship was found between parental origin of the retained X and birth weight/length/gestational age, blepharoptosis, pterygium colli, webbed neck, low hairline, abnormal ears, lymphoedema, short 4th metacarpal, shield chest, widely spaced nipples, cubitus valgus, pigmented naevi, streak gonads, and cardiovascular/renal anomalies. With regard to the children's pre-treatment height, there was a significant correlation with maternal height and target height in both Xm and Xp groups. No differences were found between Xm and Xp groups and the improvement of growth velocity (GV) during the first and second year of rhGH administration, while for both groups GV significantly improved with rhGH by the end of the first and the second year. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to correlate the parental origin of Turner syndrome with the response to rhGH therapy.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Body Height / drug effects
  • Body Height / genetics
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chromosome Deletion
  • Cytogenetic Analysis
  • Family Health
  • Female
  • Genetic Linkage
  • Genetic Markers
  • Genotype
  • Greece / epidemiology
  • Growth Hormone / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • In Situ Hybridization
  • Karyotyping
  • Monosomy
  • Mosaicism
  • Phenotype
  • Polymorphism, Genetic
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Sex Chromosome Aberrations
  • Turner Syndrome / drug therapy*
  • Turner Syndrome / genetics*
  • X Chromosome


  • Genetic Markers
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • Growth Hormone