Anticardiolipin and anti-beta2GPI antibodies in a large series of European patients with systemic lupus erythematosus. Prevalence and clinical associations. European Concerted Action on the Immunogenetics of SLE

Scand J Rheumatol. 1999;28(6):344-51.


Objective: To test the prevalences and the clinical associations of anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2GPI (abeta2GPI) antibodies in a large series of European patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE).

Methods: 574 SLE patients from 7 European countries were tested for aCL and abeta2GPI by ELISA methods.

Results: aCL of IgG, IgM, and IgA isotypes were detected in 22.8%, 14%, and 13.9% of the patients, respectively. IgG and IgM abeta2GPI were detected in 20% of the patients. The presence of aCL was highly associated with the presence of abeta2GPI. Medium-high titer IgG aCL and abeta2GPI were associated with thrombosis, with similar sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value. When present at medium-high titer, IgG aCL were associated with thrombocytopenia, IgM aCL with hemolytic anemia, and cerebrovascular accidents. IgA aCL with livedo reticularis and Raynaud's phenomenon.

Conclusions: aCL, when present at medium-high titer, are as important as abeta2GPI, as a risk factor for thrombosis. Medium-high titer aCL, but not abeta2GPI, are associated with other clinical features of the antiphospholipid syndrome.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Antibodies, Anticardiolipin / analysis*
  • Cardiovascular Diseases / epidemiology
  • Comorbidity
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Europe / epidemiology
  • Female
  • Glycoproteins / analysis*
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin A / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin G / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin M / analysis
  • Isoantibodies / classification
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / epidemiology
  • Lupus Erythematosus, Systemic / immunology*
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Regression Analysis
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • beta 2-Glycoprotein I


  • Antibodies, Anticardiolipin
  • Glycoproteins
  • Immunoglobulin A
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Isoantibodies
  • beta 2-Glycoprotein I