Surv Ophthalmol. 2000 Jan-Feb;44(4):277-301. doi: 10.1016/s0039-6257(99)00112-5.


The three most common indications for enucleation are intraocular malignancy, trauma, and a blind, painful eye. Recommending enucleation is one of the most difficult therapeutic decisions in ophthalmology. In some cases of malignancy, cryotherapy, laser photocoagulation, diathermy, chemotherapy, and radiation therapy may be viable alternatives to surgery. When surgery is chosen, evisceration or exenteration may be alternatives to enucleation. Once the decision is made to perform enucleation or evisceration, the surgeon must choose from several types of implants and wrapping materials. These devices can be synthetic, autologous, or eye-banked tissues. With certain implants, the surgeon must decide when and if to drill for subsequent peg placement. In this review, the authors discuss choices, techniques, complications, and patient consent and follow-up before, during, and after enucleation. Controversies and results of the Controlled Ocular Melanoma Study are summarized.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Eye Enucleation* / adverse effects
  • Eye Enucleation* / methods
  • Eye Injuries / surgery
  • Eye Neoplasms / surgery
  • Eye, Artificial
  • Humans
  • Informed Consent
  • Intraoperative Complications
  • Orbital Implants
  • Postoperative Complications
  • Treatment Outcome