In 1963, one of the abstracts we submitted for the Ninth ASAIO Congress entitled "Hemodialysis at Home: Utilizing Domestic Electric Washing Machine" by Y. Nosé and J. Mikami was rejected. At that time, leading ASAIO nephrologists, including W. J. Kolff, B. H. Scribner, and J. P. Merrill, did not favor patients dialyzing at home in spite of it being the only means of keeping renal failure patients alive. Also at that time, many patients died because of the unavailability of hemodialysis in hospitals. However, in 1965 both Dr. Scribner's group in Seattle and Dr. Merrill's group in Boston initiated a home hemodialysis program. This program was further expanded in many centers, including Dr. Kolff's at Cleveland Clinic. Later, home hemodialysis was proven a safe, effective, yet inexpensive method of treating chronic renal insufficiency patients.