A comprehensive guide to the application of contingency management procedures in clinical settings

Drug Alcohol Depend. 2000 Feb 1;58(1-2):9-25. doi: 10.1016/s0376-8716(99)00071-x.


Controlled clinical research has demonstrated the efficacy of contingency management procedures in treating substance use disorders. Now is the time to begin introducing these procedures into standard clinical practice. This article reviews the rationale of contingency management interventions and provides a review of representative scientific work in the area. It also discusses behaviors that can be modified, reinforcers that can be used, and behavioral principles that can be adapted to improve outcomes. This paper provides practical advice and a guideline for clinicians and researchers to use when designing and administering contingency management interventions. The recommendations are based on empirically validated manipulations. Areas in which more research is needed are suggested as well.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Behavior Therapy / methods*
  • Humans
  • Patient Compliance / psychology
  • Reward
  • Substance Abuse Detection
  • Substance-Related Disorders / psychology
  • Substance-Related Disorders / rehabilitation*