From 1993 through 1996, surveillance for invasive disease due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in neonates aged <7 days and in peripartum pregnant women was performed in a racially and ethnically diverse cohort in 4 cities in the United States. In a birth population of 157,184, 130 neonatal cases (0.8 per 1000) and 54 maternal cases (0.3 per 1000) were identified. Significant correlates with neonatal disease were black or Hispanic race and a birth weight <2500 g. The attack rate for peripartum maternal infection varied widely by city and may have been influenced by the frequency of administration of intrapartum antibiotics or of evaluating febrile women by performance of blood cultures. Pregnancy loss or GBS disease in the infant occurred in 28% of these maternal cases. Among neonatal and maternal GBS isolates, serotypes Ia (34%-37%) and III (25%-26%) predominated, and type V was frequent (14%-23%). These results provide a description of invasive GBS perinatal infection during the period in which guidelines for prevention were actively disseminated.