The causes and management of intra-operative premature rupture are analysed and discussed. During the past 6 years, the authors, performed 398 consecutive direct surgical interventions for ruptured cerebral aneurysms. Intra-operative premature rupture is defined as a rupture which occurs before the securing of the parent arteries or the neck of the aneurysm and is out of control, at least temporarily. The causes and management were retrospectively analyzed by reviewing video tape recordings. Intra-operative premature ruptures which met the above definition occurred in 24 cases (6.0%). The causes were as follows: 1.) dural opening and arachnoid opening (8.3%), 2.) haematoma removal (12.5%), 3.) brain retraction (16.7%), 4.) aneurysm dissection (62.5%). A double suction technique was used to control bleeding and haemostasis with a small piece of cotton or a temporary clip, performed in 20 cases (83.3%). However, in cases with premature rupture immediately after the dural or arachnoid opening, the extension of the haematoma into the subarachnoid space resulted in severe brain swelling and partial resection of the brain had to be done to secure temporary clipping. The double suction technique and primary haemostasis using a small piece of cotton or temporary clip resulted in good outcome even in cases with premature rupture. However, very early premature rupture also occurred although its incidence was extremely rare. The removal of part of the brain can secure the working space but the outcome was poor.