Acute CT/MRI findings were examined in a prospective, longitudinal study of 60 children 0-6 years of age hospitalized for moderate to severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). TBI was categorized as either inflicted (n = 31) or noninflicted (n = 29). Glasgow Coma Scale scores and perinatal history were comparable in both groups. Acute CT/MRI studies were visually inspected by a radiologist blind to group membership. Compared with the noninflicted TBI group, the inflicted TBI group had significantly elevated rates of subdural interhemispheric and convexity hemorrhages as well as signs of pre-existing brain abnormality, including cerebral atrophy, subdural hygroma, and ex vacuo ventriculomegaly. Intraparenchymal hemorrhage, shear injury, and skull fractures were more frequent after non-inflicted TBI. Subarachnoid hemorrhage and infarct/edema occurred with comparable frequency in both groups. Characteristic acute neuroimaging findings of inflicted TBI included multiple extraaxial hemorrhages in addition to the mild atrophy, subdural hygromas, and ventriculomegaly that suggest prior brain abnormality.