Objective: To determine the incidence of abnormal tooth eruption in patients with hyperimmunoglobulinemia E (hyper-IgE) syndrome.
Study design: This study evaluated 34 individuals with hyper-IgE syndrome (age range, 2-40 years). A comprehensive dental history and a head and neck evaluation were performed on all patients. Dental age was assessed in patients younger than 17 years by 2 methods: (1) clinical assessment of tooth eruption and (2) a radiographic method. Relationships between the chronologic age, dental developmental age, and age at tooth eruption were determined. Other oral or dental anomalies were recorded.
Results: Of patients older than 7 years, 75% reported problems with permanent tooth eruption, as evidenced by retained primary teeth or the need for elective extractions of primary teeth to allow eruption of permanent teeth. None of the patients experienced problems with eruption of primary teeth. Eruption of the first and second permanent molars also occurred on time. Dental maturity scores were established for 14 patients 17 years of age or younger. In each case, the difference between chronologic age and the estimated dental developmental age was less than 12 months; however, we found a significant discrepancy between the chronologic age and the mean age of tooth eruption in 80% of these patients when using a particular set of standardized values. Persistence of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath was observed on histologic examination. Chronic multifocal oral candidiasis was a consistent feature in patients with hyper-IgE recurrent infection syndrome. Other oral anomalies were also noted.
Conclusion: We confirmed that a disorder of tooth eruption is part of the hyper-IgE syndrome. This problem occurs because of delayed primary tooth exfoliation rather than a developmental delay in the formation of the permanent dentition. The persistence of Hertwig's epithelial root sheath is unusual and may be associated with the lack of resorption of the primary teeth. Dentists should be aware of this feature of hyper-IgE syndrome because timely intervention will allow normal eruption to occur.