Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) pneumonia in BMT recipients carries a mortality rate of approximately 50-70% despite ribavirin (Virazole) treatment. In both immunocompetent and immunocompromised animal models, RSV neutralizing antibodies rapidly reduce pulmonary virus load after a single dose. RSV-IGIV (RespiGam) is an IgG immune globulin with high concentrations of RSV neutralizing antibody (>19 200 MU/ml). From June 1991 to February 1996, a compassionate-use protocol using RSV-IGIV for treatment of RSV infections was conducted. Eleven children at multiple centers, mean age 3.3 years (4 months to 9 years), were undergoing BMT and met the protocol criteria. They received a single 1500 mg/kg dose of RSV-IGIV infused over 12 h at a median of 5 days (1-37 days) after RSV symptom onset. Ten of these patients received prior or concurrent aerosolized ribavirin. Serum RSV neutralizing titers were measured in five patients and showed a 3- to 30-fold increase 24 h after RSV-IGIV infusion. Adverse events were mild. One of 11 (9.1%) patients died from their RSV illness (91% RSV survival). In comparison to previously published reports, RSV-IGIV treatment of RSV pneumonia in BMT patients may increase survival above that in such patients treated with ribavirin alone. Bone Marrow Transplantation (2000) 25, 161-165.