We have cloned and characterized the first member of a novel family of ammonium transporters in plants: AtAMT2 from Arabidopsis thaliana. AtAMT2 is more closely related to bacterial ammonium transporters than to plant transporters of the AMT1 family. The protein was expressed and functionally characterized in yeast. AtAMT2 transported ammonium in an energy-dependent manner. In contrast to transporters of the AMT1 family, however, AtAMT2 did not transport the ammonium analogue, methylammonium. AtAMT2 was expressed more highly in shoots than roots and was subject to nitrogen regulation.