Effects of chlorine, iodine, and quaternary ammonium compound disinfectants on several exotic disease viruses

J Vet Med Sci. 2000 Jan;62(1):85-92. doi: 10.1292/jvms.62.85.


The effects of three representative disinfectants, chlorine (sodium hypochlorite), iodine (potassium tetraglicine triiodide), and quaternary ammonium compound (didecyldimethylammonium chloride), on several exotic disease viruses were examined. The viruses used were four enveloped viruses (vesicular stomatitis virus, African swine fever virus, equine viral arteritis virus, and porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus) and two non-enveloped viruses (swine vesicular disease virus (SVDV) and African horse sickness virus (AHSV)). Chlorine was effective against all viruses except SVDV at concentrations of 0.03% to 0.0075%, and a dose response was observed. Iodine was very effective against all viruses at concentrations of 0.015% to 0.0075%, but a dose response was not observed. Quaternary ammonium compound was very effective in low concentration of 0.003% against four enveloped viruses and AHSV, but it was only effective against SVDV with 0.05% NaOH. Electron microscopic observation revealed the probable mechanism of each disinfectant. Chlorine caused complete degeneration of the viral particles and also destroyed the nucleic acid of the viruses. Iodine destroyed mainly the inner components including nucleic acid of the viruses. Quaternary ammonium compound induced detachment of the envelope of the enveloped viruses and formation of micelle in non-enveloped viruses. According to these results, chlorine and iodine disinfectants were quite effective against most of the viruses used at adequately high concentration. The effective concentration of quaternary ammonium compound was the lowest among the disinfectants examined.

MeSH terms

  • African Horse Sickness / prevention & control
  • African Horse Sickness Virus / drug effects
  • African Horse Sickness Virus / growth & development*
  • African Swine Fever / prevention & control
  • African Swine Fever Virus / drug effects
  • African Swine Fever Virus / growth & development*
  • Animals
  • Arterivirus Infections / prevention & control
  • Arterivirus Infections / veterinary
  • Disinfectants / pharmacology*
  • Disinfectants / therapeutic use
  • Equartevirus / drug effects
  • Equartevirus / growth & development*
  • Horses
  • Iodine Compounds / pharmacology
  • Iodine Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Microscopy, Electron / veterinary
  • Picornaviridae / drug effects
  • Picornaviridae / growth & development*
  • Picornaviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Picornaviridae Infections / veterinary
  • Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome / prevention & control
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus / drug effects
  • Porcine respiratory and reproductive syndrome virus / growth & development*
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / pharmacology
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds / therapeutic use
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections / prevention & control
  • Rhabdoviridae Infections / veterinary
  • Sodium Hypochlorite / pharmacology
  • Sodium Hypochlorite / therapeutic use
  • Swine
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / drug effects
  • Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus / growth & development*


  • Disinfectants
  • Iodine Compounds
  • Quaternary Ammonium Compounds
  • Sodium Hypochlorite
  • didecyldimethylammonium